Printed Edition



A Treatise on Painting, by Leonardo da Vinci
Senex and Taylor, London


LDE CID Illus Text Chapter Title
T0047 CID1   T The first Thing to be learned by a Novice in Painting
T0048 CID2   T In what a Painter ought principally to exercise himself
T0049 CID3   T The Order to be observed in teaching a Novice to Design
T0051 CID4   T An Inclination not always attended with a Genius to Painting
T0060 CID5   T A Painter to be Universal
T0061 CID6   T How a Painter may become Universal
T0053 CID7   T THe Course a Painter must take in his Studies
T0062 CID8   T How a Painter may judge of his Proficiency
T0063 CID9   T The manner of learning to Design
T0064 CID10   T How to Sketch out a History-piece
T1002 CID11   T Faults to be corrected as soon as discovered
T1003 CID12   T A Painter never to trust his own Judgment
T1004 CID13   T A New Art of Invention
T0067 CID14   T The Advantage of recollecting in the Night, what has been studied in the Day
T0070 CID15   T A Man to go through a Course of Labour and Industry ever he can attain to do Things with Ease and Expedition
T2380 CID16   T A Painter to cover the Censures of different Persons on his Works
T1005 CID17   T A Painter to Design after Nature, rather than his own Ideas
T0078 CID18   T Variety of Proportions to be affected
T0079 CID19   T No difficult Matter to become Universal
T0080 CID20   T The Absurdity of meddling with the Practice, before having mastered the Theory
T2381 CID21   T One Painter never servilely to imitate another
T1006 CID22   T How to design after the Life
T1007 CID23   T A Caution about Lights and Shadows
T0085 CID24   T The Light proper to design by
T0086 CID25   T The Lights proper for Figures designed after the Life, or after Relievos
T0087 CID26   T the Lights proper or Figures designed from the Life
T0088 CID27   T How to design a Nudity
T1008 CID28   T How to Design from the Life
T0090 CID29   T How to design a Landskip from the Life or to make an exact Plan of a Country
T0091 CID30   T The Light proper for a Landskip
T2382 CID31   T How to Design by Candle-Light
T0093 CID32   T How in Painting a Head to give it all the Advantage of Light and Shadow
T0095 CID33   T The Light proper for Faces, and all Carnations in general to be painted by
T0096 CID34   T The Method to be taken in Designing the Figures in a History-piece
T0100 CID35   T How to Design a Nudity or any other Object from the Life
T0101 CID36   T The Measure or Division of a Statue
T0103 CID37  FID2   T How a Painter must place himself with regard to the Light shining upon the Model
T0104 CID38   T The Light in which Objects appear, with the most Advantage
T1009 CID39   T A painter's Judgment fometimes imposed upon by the defects of his own Person
T1010 CID40   T Anatomy necessary for a Painter
T1011 CID41   T Repetition in the same Painting, a Fault
T0109 CID42   T How a Painter may secure himself from being abused in the Choice of his Model
T0110 CID43   T A Fault of some Painters who introduce a Figure designed for one Light, into a Piece supposed to be enlightened by another
T0111 CID44   T Division of Painting
T0112 CID45   T Division of Designing
T2383 CID46   T Proportion of the Parts
T0115 CID47   T The Motion and Expression of Figures
T0116 CID48   T The Contours never to be too harsh and apparent
T0117 CID49   T A Fault not so easily discovered in a small thing, as a large one
T0118 CID50  FID3 FID4   T Why the Relievos in Painting can never be so bold, as those in Nature
T0119 CID51   T Several History-pieces, never to be painted over another on the same Front
T0120 CID52   T The Light in which Figures appear with the greatest Relievo
T0121 CID53   T Greater variety in the Lights of Shadows of Figures, than in their Contours
T0126 CID54   T The Muscles used in the several Motions of the Body, to be remembered by a Painter
T0127 CID55   T A Remark upon Expression, and Attitudes
T0130 CID56   T Painting only to be viewed from some single Place
T0135 CID57   T A Remark upon Shadows
T0142 CID58   T How to represent little Children
T0143 CID59   T How to represent old Men
T0145 CID60   T How to represent old Women
T0144 CID61   T How to represent Women
T0146 CID62   T How to paint a Night-piece
T0147 CID63   T How to represent a Tempest
T0148 CID64   T How to represent a Battle
T0149 CID65   T How to represent remote Objects
T0150 CID66   T The lower Parts of the Air brighter than the upper
T0151 CID67   T How to give Figures a great Relievo, and make them appear standing out from the Ground of the Painting
T0152 CID68  FID5   T Of representing Objects in their natural bigness
T2254 CID69   T What Figures to be the most finished
T0155 CID70   T What Light sets Faces off with the most Advantage
T0156 CID71   T Of the Reverberation of Reflexes of Light
T0157 CID72   T Places where no Light is reflected
T0158 CID73   T Of Reflexes
T0159 CID74   T Of Reflexes thrown upon Shadows
T0160 CID75   T Where Reflexes appear the most, and where the least
T0161 CID76  FID6   T What part of a Reflex will be the brightest
T0162 CID77   T Of the Colour reflected from Flesh
T0163 CID78   T What Reflexes are the most sensible
T0164 CID79  FID7   T OF Double and Triple Reflexes
T0165 CID80  FID8   T The Colour of a reflex seldom simple, but mixed out of several Colours
T0166 CID81  FID9   T The Colour of a Reflex composed of the Colour of the Body whence it proceeds, and of that on which falls
T1012 CID82   T In what place a Reflex is the most vivid and sensible
T2255 CID83   T Of Reflected Colours
T0175 CID84  FID1   T Of the Position of Figures
T0173 CID85   T Preliminaries to the Painting of History-Pieces
T0174 CID86   T How to proportion the Height of the first Figure in a History-Piece
T0176 CID87   T Of the Relievo of Figures in a History-Piece
T0177 CID88   T Of the Shortnings of Figures
T2384 CID89   T Of Diversity of Figures in a History Piece
T2385 CID90   T How to study the Motions of Human Bodies
T0181 CID91   T The Method to be taken in learning to Paint History Pieces
T1013 CID92   T Of the Variety necessaty in History Pieces
T1014 CID93   T The Faces in a History-Piece to be Diversified
T0190 CID94   T How to match the Colours in such a manner as that they give a Grace to each other
T0191 CID95   T How to make Colours appear vivid
T0192 CID96   T Of the Colour of the Shadow of any Colour
T0193 CID97   T The Variety observable in Colours, as they are nearer, or more remote
T1015 CID98   T At what distance the Colour of a Body disappears
T0196 CID99   T The Colour of the Shadow of White
T0197 CID100   T What Colour produces the darkest shadow
T0198 CID101  FID10   T A Colour sometimes seen with the same force at different Distances, and in Airs of different Densities
T0199 CID102  FID11   T Of the Perspective of Colours
T0200 CID103   T How a Colour may appear without any alteration, tho' seen in different Places, and where the Air is differently dense
T0201 CID104   T Different Colours may appear equally obscure by means of the same Shadow
T0202 CID105   T Why the Eye cannot discern some Objects, though really illuminated
T0203 CID106   T An Object never appears of its genuine Colour, unless it receivve its Light from a Colour of the same kind
T0204 CID107   T Colours receive some alteration by the Opposition of the Ground they are upon
T0205 CID108   T The Changes of transparent Colours in being laid upon others
T0206 CID109   T The degree of lustre in which each Colour appears the most beautiful
T0207 CID110   T The Lights of any Colour more beautiful than its Shadows
T0208 CID111   T What Colours the most apparent
T0209 CID112  FID12   T What part of a Colour, ought to be the most beautiful
T0210 CID113   T The most beautiful part of a Colour to be placed in the Light
T0211 CID114   T Of Verdigris
T0212 CID115   T How to augment the beauty of Verdigris
T0213 CID116   T Of the mixture of Colours one with another
T0214 CID117   T Of the Surfaces of dark Bodies
T0215 CID118   T What Surface the most proper for receiving Colours
T0216 CID119   T A Body will b the most tinged with the Colour of its nearest Object
T0217 CID120   T What Body will appear of the most beautiful Colour
T0218 CID121   T Of the Carnation of Faces
T0219 CID122   T How to design from relievos and to prepare the Paper for that Purpose
T0220 CID123   T How the Changes observable in Colours according to their greater or less Distance from the Eye
T2256 CID124   T Of the Verdure seen in the Country
T0223 CID125   T What Bodies do nt show their real Colours
T0224 CID126   T What Bodies do best discover their natural Colours
T0225 CID127   T The Light of a Landskip
T0226 CID128  FID13   T Of the Perspective of the Air, and the Diminution of Colours seen at a Distance
T0227 CID129   T Of Air seen in the Water of a Landskip
T0228 CID130   T Colours diminished by the Medium
T0229 CID131   T The Ground suitable both for Lights and Shadows
T0230 CID132   T What remedy to take when one White terminates upon another
T0231 CID133   T The different effects of Colours serving as Grounds to White
T0232 CID134   T Of the Grounds proper in Painting
T0233 CID135  FID14   T Of grounds
T0234 CID136   T A common Mistake in painting Country-Pieces
T0235 CID137   T Of the Colours of Objects far distant from the Eye
T0236 CID138   T Degrees of Colour in Painting
T0237 CID139   T The Sea of different Colours, when seen from different Places
T0238 CID140   T The Effects of Drapery on Carnations
T0239 CID141   T Colour of the Shadows of Bodies
T0240 CID142   T Diminution of Colours in dark Places
T0241 CID143   T Of the Perspective of Colours
T0242 CID144   T Of Colours
T0243 CID145   T Whence the Air derives its Azure
T0244 CID146   T What Colours most liable to Change
T1016 CID147   T Of Colours seen in obscure Places
T0246 CID148   T The Ground incompassing a Figure
T0247 CID149   T White no Colour
T0248 CID150   T The Colour reflected from Fire
T0249 CID151   T Of an Opake Body places between two Lights
T0250 CID152  FID15   T Of the Colour of Shadows
T0251 CID153   T On what Occasions a bright Ground is necessary in Painting
T0252 CID154   T How to suit your Grounds to your Figures
T0254 CID155   T Of simple Colours and their Composition
T1017 CID156   T Remarks on Colours
T0260 CID157   T Of the Colour of Mountains
T0261 CID158   T How a Painter may put in practive the Perspective of Colours
T0262 CID159  FID16   T Of the Aerial Perspective
T0263 CID160   T Remark on the Proportions of a Human Body
T0264 CID161   T The different Proportions in the Body of a Man, and that of a Child
T0265 CID162   T Children have their Jonctures contrary to those of Men, with regard to bulk and Grossness
T0266 CID163   T A remarkable difference in the Measures of a Man and a Child
T0267 CID164   T The Jonctures of Fingers
T0268 CID165   T The Motion of Shoulders
T0269 CID166   T Of the Shoulders
T1018 CID167   T No universal Measure to be prescribed fr the breadths of Figures
T0271 CID168  FID17   T The Arm longer when bent, than when stretched out
T0272 CID169   T The Parts of an Animal to be made suitable to one another
T0273 CID170   T Of the Joncture of the Hand with the Arm
T0274 CID171  FID18   T Of the Joncture of the Foot
T0275 CID172   T Of the Kneww
T0277 CID173   T Of the Members of Nudities
T0278 CID174  FID19   T Whence an Arm moves with the greatest violence
T0279 CID175  FID20 FID21   T Of the Motion of Man
T0280 CID176   T Of Attitudes, Members, and their Motions
T0281 CID177   T The Motions of the Neck to be observed
T0282 CID178   T The Members to be made fit for their Office
T0285 CID179   T Of the Motions of the Face
T0288 CID180   T Observations for the Designing of Faces
T0289 CID181   T A Method of rememberding Faces
T0291 CID182   T Of the Beauty of a Face
T0295 CID183   T Of the Equilibrium of Figures
T1019 CID184   T The Motions of a Figure to express the Sentiment of its Mind
T1020 CID185   T How to touch the Muscles of a Nudity
T0305 CID186   T A Remark on the Motion of a Man
T1021 CID187   T Of the different heights of the Shoulders observable in Animals when in Motion
T1022 CID188  FID22 FID23   T Objections
T0307 CID189   T The stretching out of an Arm changes the Equilibrium of the Body
T0308 CID190   T Of the Centre of Gravity in Animals
T0309 CID191  FID24   T Of a Man bearing a Burthen on his Shoulders
T0310 CID192  FID25   T The Equilibrium of a Man, when standing on one Foot
T0311 CID193  FID26   T Of a Man Walking
T0312 CID194   T Of the Equilibrium of an Animal standing on its Feet
T0313 CID195   T Of the Bends and turnings in the Body of Man
T0314 CID196   T Of the Flexures or Bends of the Members
T0315 CID197  FID27   T Of the Equilibrium, or Counterpose of the Body
T0316 CID198   T Different Ways of moving the same Weight
T0317 CID199   T All Motion produced from the loss of the Equilibrium
T0318 CID200  FID28   T Of the Equilibrium of a Figure
T0319 CID201   T Of the gracefulness of the Members
T0320 CID202   T Of the Disposition of the Members, in turning the Body round
T0321 CID203   T How to dispose the Members of a single Figure
T0322 CID204   T The most important parts of the Figure
T0323 CID205   T How a Body preserves its Equilibrium
T0324 CID206   T How a Figure lifts or bears a Burthen
T0325 CID207   T Of the Attitude
T0326 CID208   T Difference of Attitudes
T0327 CID209   T How a Painter may attain to give suitable Attitudes to his Figures
T0328 CID210   T Of the Actions of those present at any remarkable Event
T0329 CID211   T A Rule in Painting a Nudity
T0330 CID212   T Whence the Muscles become thick and short
T2258 CID213   T Fat Men never have Gross Muscles
T2389 CID214   T Remarks on the Muscles
T0336 CID215   T A Nudity whose Muscles do all appear must be without Motion
T0337 CID216   T The Muscles of a Nudity never to be too exact and laboured
T0341 CID217   T Of the Extensions and Shortenings of the Muscles
T0342 CID218   T The Ligament of the wrist, without any Muscle
T0343 CID219   T Little Bones formes in the Ligaments of some of the Jonctures
T0344 CID220   T Of the Muscle between the Breasts and the lower Ventricle
T0345 CID221  FID30 FID31   T The greatest Contortion of a Man, in looking at his hind Parts
T0346 CID222  FID29   T How near the Elbows may be drawn together, behind the Back
T0348 CID223  FID32   T Of the Disposition of the Members, when a Man is preparing to strike with Violence
T0349 CID224  FID33   T Of the Force of the Arms
T0350 CID225   T In which Action a Man has the greatest Strength, whether in thrustung or pulling
T0351 CID226   T Of the Flesh around the Jonctures which are bent
T0352 CID227   T The Leg not to be turned sidewise, without the Thigh
T0353 CID228   T Of the Wrinkles in the bend of a Joncture
T0354 CID229   T Of Simple Motion
T0355 CID230   T Of compound Motion
T0356 CID231   T Of the Motions suitable to the Action in which a Figure is employed
T1024 CID232   T Of the Motions of Figures
T0361 CID233   T Of the Gesture of a Man pointing at any thing
T0365 CID234   T Of the Variety of Faces
T0370 CID235   T Of the Motions suitable to the Intentions of Figures
T0371 CID236   T The Motions of the Body arising from the Sentiments of the Mind, easy and natural
T0372 CID237   T Of the Motion arising from the View of an Object
T0373 CID238   T Of Common Motions
T0374 CID239   T Of the Motion of Animals
T2388 CID240   T Every Member to be suitable to the Whole of which it is a Part
T0377 CID241   T Decency and Decorum to be observed in your figures
T0378 CID242   T Of the mixture of Figures different in Age, etc.
T0379 CID243   T Of the Quality of the Persons in a History-Piece
T0380 CID244   T How to represent a Person speaking to a Multitude
T0381 CID245   T How to represent a Man in a Rage
T0382 CID246   T How to represent a desperate Man
T1025 CID247   T Of the Motions made in laughing and crying and their Difference
T0386 CID248   T Of the Postures of Children and old Men
T0387 CID249   T Of the Postures of Woemn and young People
T0390 CID250   T Of a Man leaping
T0392 CID251  FID34   T Of a Man throwing anything from him with Violence
T0393 CID252   T Why a Man pulling anything out of the Earth, or darting it in raises the Leg opposite to the Arm, which acts and bends it in the Knee
T0394 CID253  FID35   T Of the equilibrium of a Body at rest and out of Motion
T0395 CID254   T Of a Man standing on his Feet, and resting more on one than the other
T0396 CID255   T Of the Position of Figures
T0397 CID256   T Of the Equilibrium of a MAn standing firm on his Feet
T0398 CID257   T Of Local motion
T0399 CID258  FID36   T Of Quadrupeds and their Motion
T0400 CID259   T Of the Relation which one half of the Body bears to the other half
T0401 CID260   T Three several Motions in a Man who Leaps
T0402 CID261  FID46   T Every Member of an Animal capable of an infinite NUmber of different Views
T0405 CID262   T Nature the Foundation on which a Painter ought to proceed
T0406 CID263   T Of the Judgment which a Painter forms, of his own or other Mens Works
T1026 CID264   T The Precautions necessary, to inable a Painter, to judge of his own Performances
T1027 CID265   T The use of a Mirrour in Painting
T0411 CID266   T What manner of Painting the most excellent
T0412 CID267   T The first Aim and design of a Painter
T0413 CID268   T The Distribution of the Lights and Shadows, requires more Thought and Address, than Designing the Colours
T0414 CID269   T Rules for managing the Lights of your Figures
T0415 CID270  FID47   T Where a Person ought to place himself to view a Painting
T0416 CID271   T How high to place the Point of View
T0417 CID272   T Little Figures never to appear bold and finished
T0418 CID273   T Of the Grounds proper for Figures
T0419 CID274   T Of Lights and Shadows, and in particular, of the Shadows of Carnations
T0420 CID275   T Rules for Country-Pieces
T0421 CID276   T How to make an imaginary Animal appear like a Natural one
T0422 CID277  FID48   T How to give a Grace and Relievo to Faces
T0423 CID278  FID37   T How to raise and loosen a Figure from its Ground
T0424 CID279   T The different Effects of Lights, as they are differently large
T2390 CID280   T Disproportions in the Circumstances, and less Considerable parts of a Painting to be avoided
T0426 CID281   T Of the Extremes of a Body, called Profiles or Contours
T0427 CID282   T The Effect of the Removal of an Object, with Regard to the Design
T0428 CID283   T The effect of the Removal of Objects with regard to the Colours
T0429 CID284   T The effect of one Body bounding on another
T0430 CID285  FID38   T Of a Man walking against the Wind
T0431 CID286   T Of the Window at which a Painter Works
T0432 CID287  FID49   T Why in measuring a Face, and Painting after the Measures the Pictures will appear larger than the Life
T0433 CID288  FID39 FID50   T How the Surface of every Opake Body partakes of the Colour of its Object
T0434 CID289   T Of the Motion
T0435 CID290   T Of Animals, and in particular of the Flight of Birds
T0436 CID291  FID51   T A Figure may appear forty Fathoms high, which yet is painted on a Wall of half that height
T0437 CID292  FID40   T How a Painter may Design a Figure that may appear twenty four Fathoms high, on a Wall only twelve Fathoms high
T1029 CID293   T Remarks relating to Lights and Shadows
T0440 CID294  FID52   T The effect of an universal Light, on a Multitude of Bodies
T0441 CID295   T Of a Plane Surface on a Ground of the same Colour with itself
T0442 CID296   T Of the difference with regard to Painting between a Surface and a Solid
T0443 CID297   T The smallest parts of an Object, are those which in its removal from the Eye, disappear the first
T1030 CID298   T Why the same Champaign appears larger at sometimes than at others
T0445 CID299   T Miscellaneous Observations on Perspective, and Colours
T0446 CID300  FID41   T Of Cities and other Objects seen in a gross Air
T0447 CID301   T OF the Rays of the Sun passing thro' the Interstieces of Clouds
T0448 CID302   T Of Objects seen in a Mist or thick Air
T0449 CID303  FID42   T Of Buildings seen through a Gross Air
T0450 CID304   T Of Objects seen at a Distance
T0451 CID305   T How a city appears in a Gross Air
T0452 CID306   T Of the lower Bounds, or Extremities of Remote Objects
T0453 CID307   T Of remote Objects
T0454 CID308   T Of the azure of remote Objects
T0455 CID309   T What Parts of a Body are the first which disappear at a Distance
T0456 CID310   T What Bodies are less distinguishable at greater distances
T0458 CID311   T Why Faces and other Objects become obscure at a distance
T0460 CID312   T Which parts of Bodies removed to a distance disappear the first, and which the last
T0461 CID313   T Of Linear Perspective
T0462 CID314   T Why Objects appear larger than they are in effect, when seen in a Fog
T0463 CID315   T Of the Tops and Bottoms of Buildings seen in a Fog
T0464 CID316   T Of Buildings seen in the Morning, or Evening through a Gross Air
T0465 CID317  FID43   T The highest Objects at a Distance, and in a Fog, appear more obscure than those which are lower
T0466 CID318  FID53   T Of the Shadows seen in Bodies viewed at a Distance
T0467 CID319  FID44   T Why the Shadows projected on a White Wall towards the close of the Day appear Azure
T2251 CID320   T Of Smoke
T0469 CID321   T Of Dust
T1031 CID322  FID45 FID54   T Miscellaneous Rules and Precepts, for Painting
T0481 CID323  FID55   T A PAinted Figure will not appear at an equal distance with the Natural Object, though both seen under the same Angle
T0482 CID324   T Of the Grounds in Paintings
T0483 CID325   T How to Judge of a Painting
T0484 CID326   T Objects appear with less Relievo as they are more remote
T0485 CID327   T Where the Contours are the most visible
T0486 CID328   T Of the Bounds or Extremese of Bodies
T0487 CID329   T Of the Shadows of remote Objects
T1032 CID330   T Various Rules and Precepts in Painting
T0494 CID331  FID56   T Why a Painting though imitated with the greatest perfecton from Nature, does not appear with as much RElievo as the Natural Objects whence it is Copied
T0497 CID332   T A Light Ground preferable to a Dark one, with regard to raising and loosening your Figures from bottom of the Painting
T0498 CID333   T An universal Light more advantageous to a Figure than a particular one
T0500 CID334   T In Painting a Landskip regard to be had to the Climate and the Quality of the Place
T1033 CID335   T What is to be observed in representing the Autumn
T0502 CID336   T A rule to be observed in representing the Wind
T0503 CID337   T How to represent the beginning of Shower
T0505 CID338   T Of the Shadows of Bridges thrown on the Water underneath them
T0509 CID339   T Of the use of Perspective in Painting
T0510 CID340   T Of the Equilibrium of Figures
T0512 CID341   T How to make a Statue
T1034 CID342   T How to secure a Painting from decay and to preserve it always resh and unfaded
T0514 CID343   T How to apply Colours upon Linnen
T0517 CID344   T Of the use of Perspective in representing Objects that appear dim either on account of distance or of the density of the Medium
T0526 CID345   T The effect of the distance of Objects
T0528 CID346   T Of the Medium between the Eye and its Object
T1035 CID347   T Of the Draperies wherewith Figures are Cloathed
T1036 CID348   T Of the different ways of representing the Folds in Drapery
T0537 CID349  FID57   T How to conduct the Folds of a Drapery
T0538 CID350   T Rules for designing a Drapery
T0540 CID351  FID58   T Of the Folds seen in the Draperies of Members that are shortened
T0542 CID352   T Of the Shadows of the Folds
T1037 CID353   T The Folds of the Drapery to Correspond to the Attitude of the Figure
T0943 CID354  FID59   T Of the Horizon appearing in the Water